Luật gôn R&A
The R&A is golf ’s world rules and development body and organiser of The Open Championship.  It operates with the consent of more than 130 national and international, amateur and professional organisations, from
over 120 countries and on behalf of an estimated 30 million golfers in Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and The Americas (outside the USA and Mexico).The United States Golf Association (USGA) is the game’s governing body in the United States and Mexico.
Rules of Golf
as approved by
R&A Rules Limited and
The United States Golf Association
31st Edition
Effective 1 January 2008

R&A Rules Limited
With effect from 1st Januar y 2004, the responsibilities and authority of The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in making, interpreting and giving decisions on the Rules of Golf and on the Rules of Amateur Status were transferred to R&A Rules Limited.
Gender
In the Rules of Golf, the gender used in relation to any person is understood to include both genders.
Golfers with Disabilities
The R&A publication entitled “A Modification of the Rules of Golf for Golfers with Disabilities”, that contains permissible modifications of the Rules of Golf to accommodate disabled golfers, is available through the R&A.
Handicaps
The Rules of Golf do not legislate for the allocation and adjustment of handicaps. Such matters are within the jurisdiction of the National Union concerned and queries should be directed accordingly. 
This book contains the Rules of Golf, which will be effective worldwide from 1st Januar y 2008. It represents the culmination of four years
work by R&A Rules Limited and the United States Golf Association (USGA), following consultation with other golfing bodies throughout the world.
Whilst it is considered impor tant that the Rules be faithful to their historical principles, they must be clear, comprehensive and understandable, and the penalties must be appropriate. The Rules need regular review to ensure these goals are met and this set of Rules is the latest stage of this evolution. The principal changes are summarised on pages 6 to 10.
Both R&A Rules Limited and the USGA wish to promote respect for and adherence to the Rules and to preserve the integrity of golf at all levels.
In conclusion, we express our grateful thanks not only for the work done by our respective committees, but also to all those others whose varied contributions have made this revision possible.
General
The changes to the Rules generally fall into two broad categories: (1) those that improve the clarity of the Rules and (2) those that reduce the penalties in cer tain circumstances to ensure that they are propor tionate.
Definitions
Advice
Amended to allow the exchange of information on distance, as it is not considered to be “advice”.
Lost Ball
Amended to clarify substituted ball issues and to include the concept of
“stroke-and-distance” (see corresponding changes to Rules 18-1, 24-3,
25-1c, 26 and 27-1).
Matches
Definition withdrawn and replaced by two new Definitions, “Forms of
Match Play” and “Forms of Stroke Play”.
Rules
Rule 1-2. Exerting Influence on Ball
Note added to clarify what constitutes a serious breach of Rule 1-2.
Rule 4-1. Form and Make of Clubs
Amended to reduce the penalty for carr ying, but not using, a non- conforming club or a club in breach of Rule 4-2, from disqualification to the same as carr ying more than 14 clubs. 
Rule 12-1. Searching for Ball; Seeing Ball
Amended to include searching for a ball in an obstruction.
Rule 12-2. Identifying Ball
Amended to allow a player to lift his ball for identification in a hazard (see corresponding change to Rule 15-3, removing the exemption from penalty for playing a wrong ball in a hazard).
Rule 13-4. Ball in Hazard; Prohibited Actions
Exception 1 amended for clarification; Exception 2 amended to refer to Rule 13-2 and to eliminate the reference to assistance in the player’s subsequent play of the hole; Exception 3 added to exempt a player from penalty under Rule 13-4a (testing the condition of the hazard) in cer tain circumstances.
Rule 14-3. Artificial Devices, Unusual Equipment and Unusual Use of Equipment
Amended to refer to the unusual use of equipment (see also new
Exception on use of equipment in a traditionally accepted manner)
and new Exception added for players with a legitimate medical reason to use an ar tificial device or unusual equipment.
Note added to clarify that a Local Rule may be introduced allowing the use of distance measuring devices; previously authorised by Decision only.
Rule 15-2. Substituted Ball
Exception added to avoid a “double penalty” when player incorrectly substitutes ball and plays from the wrong place (see corresponding change to Rule 20-7c).
Rule 15-3. Wrong Ball
Amended to remove the exemption from penalty for playing a wrong ball in a hazard (see corresponding change to Rule 12-2, allowing a player to lift a ball for identification in a hazard). 
Rule 16-1e. Standing Astride or on Line of Putt
Exception added to apply no penalty if act was inadver tent or to avoid standing on another player’s line of putt; previously authorised by Decision only.
Rule 18. Ball at Rest Moved
Penalty statement amended to avoid a “double penalty” when a player
lifts his ball without authority and incorrectly substitutes ball (see
related changes to Rules 15-2 and 20-7c).
Rule 18-1. Ball at Rest Moved; By Outside Agency
Note added to clarify procedure when ball might have been moved by
an outside agency.
Rule 19-2. Ball in Motion Deflected or Stopped By Player, Partner, Caddie or Equipment
Amended to reduce the penalty in both match play and stroke play to one stroke.
Rule 20-3a. Placing and Replacing; By Whom and Where
Amended to reduce the penalty for having the wrong person place or
replace a ball to one stroke.
Rule 20-7c. Playing from Wrong Place; Stroke Play
Note added to avoid a “double penalty” when player plays from the
wrong place and incorrectly substitutes ball (see corresponding change
to Rule 15-2).
Rule 24-1. Movable Obstruction
Amended to allow a flagstick, whether attended, removed or held up,
to be moved when a ball is in motion.
Rule 24-3. Ball in Obstruction Not Found;
Rule 25-1c. Ball in Abnormal Ground Condition Not Found; Rule 26. Water Hazards (Including Lateral Water Hazards);
Rule 27-1. Stroke and Distance; Ball Out of Bounds; Ball Not Found

Within Five Minutes
In the above Rules, the term “reasonable evidence” has been replaced by “known or vir tually cer tain” when determining whether a ball that has not been found may be treated as in an obstruction (Rule 24-3), an abnormal ground condition (Rule 25-1) or a water hazard (Rule
26-1). See corresponding changes to Definition of Lost Ball and
Rule 18-1.
Appendix I
Seams of Cut Turf
New specimen Local Rule added.
Temporary Immovable Obstructions
Clause II of the specimen Local Rule amended to include an additional requirement that, for intervention relief to be granted, the temporar y immovable obstruction must be on the player’s line of play.
Appendix II
Adjustability
Amended to allow forms of adjustability other than weight adjustment, subject to evaluation by the R&A.
Clubhead; Plain in Shape
Amended to clarify meaning of “plain in shape” and list some of the features that are not permitted; previously detailed in guidelines on equipment Rules. 
Clubhead; Dimensions,Volume and Moment of Inertia
Sections added on moment of iner tia and putter head dimensions; previously detailed in guidelines on equipment Rules and test protocols.
Clubhead; Spring Effect and Dynamic Properties
New section added on spring effect. The limit, as detailed in the Pendulum Test Protocol, now applies to all clubs (except putters) and in all forms of the game; previously covered by condition of competition. 
Cập nhật : 15-05-2016